Oxidative Stress

Oxidative stress results due to disturbed equilibrium between pro-oxidants and antioxidants and plays a role in pathophysiology of Diabetes and Cardiovascular diseases. Obesity and its comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, are associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that can be detected both systemically and within specific tissues. Areas of active investigation focus on the molecular bases of metabolic inflammation and potential pathogenic roles in insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. An increased accumulation of macrophages occurring in obese adipose tissue has emerged as a key process in metabolic inflammation. Apparently, metabolic overload evokes stress reactions, such as oxidative, inflammatory, organelle and cell hypertrophy, generating vicious cycles. Adipocyte hypertrophy, through physical reasons, facilitates cell rupture, what will evoke an inflammatory reaction.

  • Lysosomal physiological response
  • Apoptosis and Phagocytosis
  • Positive energetic balance
  • Hypertrophic growth of adipocytes
  • Macrovascular complications

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